Part political comment and part religious critique is seen in the beginning of this chapter. God longed to heal Ephraim, sent prophets to warn them. God could see their sins. Kings and princes were delighted with sad situation. Sin of adultery mentioned. Might have had links to Baal worship, sexual activity. Used image of hot oven, hot passion. Result was assassination of king during festival. (Four kings were assassinated during Hosea’s time).