Ruin and redemption of Jerusalem. Description of a dismal situation is given. No king, no priests, only pain (likened to a woman in labor). A description of exile to Babylon is given (May be used as general term for Mesopotamia). Exile to Babylon wouldn’t happen for another century or more…also promise of rescue out of the hand of their enemies. Nonetheless, that promise was for future generations. Current generation remained unrepentant and will suffer for their sins. Nations that gloated over Jerusalem’s misfortune should think about their place in God’s overall plan…in turn, they, too, would experience judgment. They, too, will be gathered like sheaves to the threshing floor.